Recent Changes

Tuesday, October 11

  1. page Napoleon's Rise to Power edited 1. Why was the 'Directory' a weak government? ... extreme Jacobins (the Montagnards) from po…

    1. Why was the 'Directory' a weak government?
    extreme Jacobins (the Montagnards) from power.
    A. Weak Executive Powers
    The diagram below sets out the system of government created by the 1795 Constitution
    In what ways was the power of the executive branch of government (the Directors) limited by the 1795 constitution?
    Annual elections createdelectionscreated instability
    Seperation of Powers created deadlock
    Powerless to provide clear leadership, the Directors began to rely on unconstitutional methods to ensure the government did not come under the control of extremists from both sides of the political spectrum.
    B. Failure to deal with the economic, religious and political divisions in French Society
    of the Franc inFrancin 1803 finally
    the religious divisions whichdivisionswhich divided catholics
    resurgent political opposition inoppositionin the form
    Adoption of extreme policies; the directors returned to some of the tactics of the Terror to maintain order. Royalist deputies were deported to French Guinea. Death sentences against returning emigres were introduced. Hundreds of non-juring priests were deported or imprisoned. Members of the old nobility were declared as foreigners and had to apply for naturalisation to become citizens again. Rather than soothing the divisions in French society, the Directory's policies only drove the wedge deeper.
    C. Success ...then Failure in War
    First Coalition (1793-97) had(1793-97)had fought to
    The Second Coalition (1798-1802) against revolutionary France was formed in 1798. The rejoining of battle was marked by Nelson's destruction of the French fleet at Akoubir, Egypt. This victory gave the allies command of the Eastern Mediterranean and cut off supply routes to Napoleon's army. Meanwhile, in Italy the enormous gains Napoleon had made between 1796-97 were lost and Provence was threatened with invasion by a new Austro-Russian army.
    D. Growing reliance upon the Military
    Revolt of Vendemairie (Oct 1795) occurred just days before the new constitution came into being. In Paris 25,000 sans culottes were egged on by royalists to lay seige the Convention. Low wages, a poor harvest in 1795 and the repeal of the law of the Maximum also contributed to the disorder. Fortunately for the politicians inside the Tuileries Palace, Napoleon Bonaparte was on hand and he put down the revolt when he trained his canon on the rebels and treated them to a 'whiff of grapeshot'. The Directory owed its existence to the army before it was even born. A whiff of grapeshot
    Fructidor (Sept 1797) was1797)was a seizure
    Military Annuls 1798 Elections when another hostile majority is returned to the councils; this time the anti-Directory deputies are led by a small group of extreme Jacobins.
    E. Disagreements and Plots amongst the Directors
    The 5 Directors prior to the Coup of Fructidor 1797; Barras (Republican), La Revelliere (Republican), Reubell (Republican), Carnot (Royalist) and Bathelemy (Royalist)
    whole system.

    newly elected
    the Legislature.
    Any move to overthrow the Directory would require the backing of the military and so Sieyes began sounding out support for his plans amongst the leading Generals. Eventually, Sieyes recruited Napoleon to act as the necessary military muscle.
    2. When and how did Napoleon gain political power?
    Personal ability; Napoleon was a consolidator rather than an innovator. He was fortunate to inherit a professional officer corps, a supply of veterans and an enormous pool from which to recruit. His ability consisted of an emphasis on logistical planning, occasional brilliant improvisation and the most efficient use of the new conscript armies, 'living off the land' as they moved. Napoleon's main contribution to the development of the French army was the self-contained army corps. By dividing up his forces into smaller bodies or 'corps', each with their own integrated command and support structures, Napoleon freed his army from the need to remain close to a main supply depot or indeed his personal presence. These corps were then sent along different routes towards a target to enable swift movement and avoid detection of their objective. With supreme precision Napoleon would then suddenly concentrate the disparate elements of his army to surprise and overwhelm the enemy. {The Development of The Corps D'Armee.pdf}
    Toulon; in 1793 Lieutenant Bonaparte's expert use of his artillery played a crucial role in the recapture of the strategically important naval port from the British.
    Revolt of Vendemairie above.Vendemairieabove.
    Italy; Napoleon won a series of stunning victories across northern Italy against the combined forces of Austria and the Kingdom of Piedmont. What made these victories so impressive was that the French were vastly outnumbered by their opponents. The First Coalition met its end at the Treaty of Campo Formio in 1797. Napoleon leads the charge at the Battle of Arcole (1796)
    Egypt; An attempt to strike at British trade in the Eastern Mediterranean. This quasi-scientific expedition fell foul of disease, rebellion but most significantly, the loss of their supply lines after Nelson destroyed the French fleet in Aug 1798. Napoleon left his destitute army in 1799 after hearing of the formation of the Second Coalition and the loss of his hard won gains in Italy. Napoleon in Cairo (1798)
    C. Image Consciousness
    Newsheets; Regular bulletins full of disinformation were published by Napoleon e.g. the Courier of Italy. These exaggerated battle reports, many of them written by Napoleon himself, were meant to boost Army morale and dishearten the enemy. Disseminated widely, these helped Napoleon win acclaim in France and cultivate a deep loyalty amongst his troops
    Senior Officers; NapoleonOfficers;Napoleon sent his
    Treaty of Campo Formio; The crowning achievement of Napoleon's Italian campaign was handed over to the Directors by Napoleon himself in an elaborate ceremony held in the Luxembourg Palace. Testament to Napoleon's burgeoning reputation came when he returned to France in 1797. Parisians gave him a hero's welcome, the Institut de France, the leading scientific association in Europe, honoured Napoleon by admitting him to their mathematics division and everywhere he was feted.
    Selective reporting; Napoleon used his contacts in Paris to keep bad news out of the popular press e.g. the massacre of 1,000 prisoners at Gaza or the mutiny of his troops on the march from Alexandria to Cairo.
    (view changes)
    4:13 am

Monday, August 1

  1. 6:45 am
  2. 6:45 am

Wednesday, March 30

  1. page Year 9 edited ... External Links: Useful information for these topics can be found here Why learn about WW1? …
    External Links:
    Useful information for these topics can be found here
    Why learn about WW1?
    (view changes)
    12:22 am

Tuesday, March 29

  1. page Long-term causes of WW1 edited ... 2. Nationalism: How did the Great Powers see themselves? Land of Hope and Glory (GB) Rule B…
    2. Nationalism: How did the Great Powers see themselves?
    Land of Hope and Glory (GB)
    Rule Britannia (GB)
    3. Imperialism: Who were Britain's colonial rivals?
    The colonisation of Africa by 1914
    (view changes)
    11:54 pm

Tuesday, February 1

  1. page Why was Kerensky's government unable to survive? edited ... 4. LAND SEIZURES {edward katie george oliver matthew samir handout} ... matthew samir pr…
    {edward katie george oliver matthew samir handout}
    matthew samir presentation}presentation.ppt}
    (view changes)
    12:08 am